This list is the general bibliography I used for my research that isn't specifically tied to a specific person's story.

Gender and Technology

Abbate, Janet. Recoding Gender : Women’s Changing Participation in Computing. Cambridge, Mass.: Mit Press, 2012.

Accenture, and Girls Who Code. “Resetting Tech Culture 5: Strategies to Keep Women in Tech,” 2020.

Alegria, Sharla. “Escalator or Step Stool? Gendered Labor and Token Processes in Tech Work.” Gender & Society 33, no. 5 (March 27, 2019): 722–45.

Bolt, Laura. “Women Make up over Half the Design Industry—so Why Are There so Few at the Top?” Eye on Design, March 31, 2020.

Breslin, Samantha, and Bimlesh Wadhwa. “Exploring Nuanced Gender Perspectives within the HCI Community,” 45–54. New Delhi, India: Association for Computing Machinery, 2014.

Burnett, Margaret, Robin Counts, Ronette Lawrence, and Hannah Hanson. “Gender HCl and Microsoft: Highlights from a Longitudinal Study,” 139–43, 2017.

Caroline Criado Perez. Invisible Women: Data Bias in a World Designed for Men. S.L.: Harry N Abrams, 2020.

Churchill, Elizabeth F. “Sugared Puppy-Dog Tails: Gender and Design.” Interactions 17 (2010): 52–56.

Claire Cain Miller. “As Women Take over a Male-Dominated Field, the Pay Drops.” The New York Times, March 18, 2016.

Cooke-Reynolds, Melissa , and Nancy Zukewich. “The Feminization of Work.” Canadian Social Trends, April 2004.

Coroflot. “Industrial Designer Salaries in United States - Design Salary Guide at Coroflot.” Coroflot. Accessed September 29, 2022.

Daley, Sam. “Women in Tech Statistics for 2020 (and How We Can Do Better).” Built In, March 13, 2020.

Diehl, Amy, Leanne M. Dzubinski, and Amber L. Stephenson. “Women in Leadership Face Ageism at Every Age.” Harvard Business Review, June 16, 2023.

England, Kim, and Kate Boyer. “Women’s Work: The Feminization and Shifting Meanings of Clerical Work.” Journal of Social History 43 (December 2009): 307–40.

Ensmenger, Nathan. “Making Programming Masculine.” In Gender Codes: Why Women Are Leaving Computing, edited by Thomas Misa, 115–41. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley, 2010.

Exley, Christine L, and Judd B Kessler. “The Gender Gap in Self-Promotion.” National Bureau of Economic Research, October 1, 2019.

Faulkner, Wendy. “The Power and the Pleasure? A Research Agenda for ‘Making Gender Stick’ to Engineers.” Science, Technology, & Human Values 25, no. 1 (January 2000): 87–119.

Foss, Sonja K, Mary E Domenico, and Karen A Foss. Gender Stories: Negotiating Identity in a Binary World. Waveland Press, 2013.

Geall, Lauren. “Women Are More Likely to Underestimate Their Achievements.” Stylist, October 9, 2019.

U.S. War Department, You’re Going to Hire Women, booklet produced to persuade managers and supervisors to hire women, cited in Chester Gregory, Women in Defense Work During World War II: An Analysis of the Labor Problem and Women's Rights (New York, 1974), 12.

Hacker, Sally. Pleasure, Power and Technology. Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1989.

Hayes, Caroline Clark. “Computer Science, the Incredibly Shrinking Woman.” In Gender Codes: Why Women Are Leaving Computing, edited by Thomas Misa, 25–50. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley, 2010.

Hicks, Marie. “Meritocracy and Feminization in Conflict.” In Gender Codes: Why Women Are Leaving Computing, edited by Thomas Misa, 95–114. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley, 2010.

Hicks, Marie. Programmed Inequality. Cambridge: Mit Press, 2018.

Iandiorio, Jess. “Why so Many Women in Tech Get Told They’re ‘Not Strategic.’” Fast Company, September 14, 2020.

James, Sidney. “When Men Voice Women’s Ideas.” Medium, February 3, 2020.

Karen, Alana. The Adventures of Women in Tech : How We Got Here and Why We Stay. Minneapolis, Mn: Wise Ink Creative Publishing, 2021.

Lerman, Nina E, Ruth Oldenziel, and Arwen Mohun. Gender and Technology : A Reader. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

Light, Jennifer. “Programming.” In Gender & Technology: A Reader, edited by Nina E. Lerman, Ruth Oldenziel, and Arwen P. Mohun, 296–326. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

Light, Jennifer S. “When Computers Were Women.” Technology and Culture 40 (1999): 455–83.

Margolis, Jane, and Allan Fisher. Unlocking the Clubhouse : Women in Computing. Cambridge, Mass. ; London: Mitpress, 2003.

Measuring U. “2022 UXPA Salary Survey.” User Experience Professionals Association, March 2022.

Melanie Stewart Millar. Cracking the Gender Code : Who Rules the Wired World? Toronto: Second Story Press, 1998.

Misa, Thomas J, ed. Gender Codes: Why Women Are Leaving Computing. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley, 2010.

Mundy, Liza. “Why Is Silicon Valley so Awful to Women?” The Atlantic. The Atlantic, March 14, 2017.

Murphy, Emily, and Daniel Oesch. “The Feminization of Occupations and Change in Wages: A Panel Analysis of Britain, Germany, and Switzerland.” Social Forces 94, no. 3 (August 17, 2015): 1221–55.

National Center for Education Statistics. “Digest of Education Statistics, 2021.”, September 2021.

Peluso, Michelle , Carolyn Heller Baird, and Lynn Kesterson-Townes. “Women, Leadership, and the Priority Paradox.” Armonk, NY: IBM Institute for Business Value, 2019.

Ratzer, B, Astrid Weisse, Barbara Weixelbaumer, Nicole Mirnig, Manfred Tscheligi, David Raneburger, Roman Popp, and Jürgen Falb. “Bringing Gender into Technology: A Case Study in User-Interface-Design and the Perspective of Gender Experts.” International Journal of Gender, Science, and Technology 6 (2014): 3–24.

Schieder, Jessica, and Elise Gould. “‘Women’s Work’ and the Gender Pay Gap: How Discrimination, Societal Norms, and Other Forces Affect Women’s Occupational Choices—and Their Pay.” Economic Policy Institute, July 20, 2016.

T.L. Andrews. “Silicon Valley’s Gender Gap Is the Result of Computer Game Marketing 20 Years Ago.” Quartz. Quartz, February 16, 2017.

TechWomen. “Who We Are.” TechWomen. Accessed September 15, 2022.

Thomas, Rachel, Ph.D Marianne Cooper, Kate McShane Urban, Cardazone, Ph.D., Gina, Ali Bohrer, Sonia Mahahjan, Lareina Yee, et al. “Women in the Workplace.” McKinsey & Company and Lean In, 2021.

Toossi , Mitra , and Teresa L. Morisi. “Women in the Workforce Before, During, and after the Great Recession.” U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, July 2017.

Torres, Monica. “Data Reveals an Infuriating Reason Women over 40 Are Held Back at Work.” HuffPost, July 11, 2023.

Tynes, Brendesha M, and Safiya Umoja Noble. The Intersectional Internet : Race, Sex, Class and Culture Online. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc, 2015.

University of Delaware. “Women Get Less Credit than Men in the Workplace.” ScienceDaily, December 2017.

Women In Tech. “The Elephant in the Valley.” The Elephant in the Valley, 2017.

Wyer, Mary, Mary Barbercheck, Donna Cookmeyer, Hatice Ozturk, and Marta Wayne. Women, Science, and Technology. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis, 2013.

Intersectionality & Race

Brown, Quincy, Neha Kumar, Jakita Thomas, Alexandra To, and Yolanda Rankin. “Discovering Intersectionality Part I: Researcher Interrupted.” Interactions 28 (2021): 73–77.

Crenshaw, Kimberly, Neil Gotanda, Gary Peller, Kendall Thomas, editors. Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings That Formed A Movement. The New Press, 1996.

Eglash, Ron. “Afrofuturism: Race, Sex, and Nerds: From Black Geeks to Asian American Hipsters.” Social Text Volume 20 (2002): 49–67.

Erete, Sheena, Yolanda A Rankin, and Jakita O Thomas. “I Can’t Breathe: Reflections from Black Women in CSCW and HCI.” Proc. ACM Hum.-Comput. Interact. 4 (2021).

Harrison, Sara. “Five Years of Tech Diversity Reports—and Little Progress.” Wired, October 1, 2019.

Holmes-Miller, Dr. Cheryl D. “Black Design: Still Missing in Action?” Print Magazine, July 2016.

McIlwain, Charlton D. Black Software : The Internet and Racial Justice, from the AfroNet to Black Lives Matter. New York, Ny: Oxford University Press, 2020.

Miller, Meg. “Survey: Design Is 73% White.” Fast Company, January 31, 2017.

Rankin, Yolanda A, Jakita O Thomas, and Nicole M Joseph. “Intersectionality in HCI: Lost in Translation.” Interactions 27 (2020): 68–71.

Schlesinger, Ari, Edwards W Keith, and Rebecca E Grinter. “Intersectional HCI: Engaging Identity through Gender, Race, and Class,” 5412–27. Denver, Colorado, USA: Association for Computing Machinery, 2017.

Shalini Kantayya. “Coded Bias,” 2020.

Tunstall, Elizabeth. Decolonizing Design : A Cultural Justice Guidebook. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2023.

Weise, Elizabeth. “Google Discloses Its (Lack Of) Diversity.” USA TODAY, May 28, 2014.

Interaction Design, Digital Design, Web Design, Theory.

Ankerson, Megan Sapnar. Dot-Com Design : The Rise of a Usable, Social, Commercial Web. New York: New York University Press, 2018.

Armstrong, Helen. Digital Design Theory : Readings from the Field. New York, New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2016.

Cooper, Muriel. “Computers and Design.” Design Quarterly, no. 142 (1989): 1.

Costanza-Chock, Sasha. Design Justice: Community-Led Practices to Build the Worlds We Need. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2020.

Dix, Alan. “HCI: A Stable Discipline, a Nascent Science and the Growth of the Long Tail.” Oral Speech. Presented at the SIGCHI Ireland, December 2, 2008.

Dubberly, Hugh. “Design in the Age of Biology: Shifting from a Mechanical-Object Ethos to an Organic-Systems Ethos.” Interactions 15 (2008): 35–41.

Dunford, Adam . “There Is No Such Thing as an Interaction Design Degree.” IxDA. Interaction Design Education Summit, March 9, 2018.

Faiola, Anthony. “The Design Enterprise: Rethinking the HCI Education Paradigm.” Design Issues 23, no. 3 (July 2007): 30–45.

Garrett, Jesse James. “Jesse James Garrett: The Memphis Plenary.”, March 22, 2009.

Goodman, Elizabeth, Erik Stolterman, and Ron Wakkary. “Understanding Interaction Design Practices,” 1061–70. Vancouver, BC, Canada: Association for Computing Machinery, 2011.

Helfand, Jessica. Six (+2) Essays on Design and New Media. Columbia University Press, 1997.

Kapor, Mitch. “A Software Design Manifesto.” In Bringing Design to Software, edited by Terry Winograd, 2–9. New York: ACM Press, 1996.

Kapor, Mitchell. “Bringing Design to Software - Ch. 1 Kapor.”, 1996.

Katz, Barry. Make It New : The History of Silicon Valley Design. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2015.

Kolko, Jon. Thoughts on Interaction Design a Collection of Reflections. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2011.

Laurel, Brenda. Computers as Theatre. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Addison-Wesley, 2014.

Laurel, Brenda, and S Joy Mountford. The Art of Human-Computer Interface Design. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co, 1990.

Liddle, David. “Design of the Conceptual Model.” In Bringing Design to Software, edited by Terry Winograd, 18–30. New York: ACM Press, 1996.

Löwgren, Jonas. “How Far beyond Human-Computer Interaction Is Interaction Design?” Digital Creativity 13, no. 3 (September 2002): 186–89.

Moggridge, Bill. Designing Interactions. Cambridge, Mass. ; London: MIT Press, 2007.

Steenson, Molly Wright. Architectural Intelligence. MIT Press, 2022.

Murray, Janet H. Inventing the Medium : Principles of Interaction Design as a Cultural Practice. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2012.

Rudisill, Marianne. Human-Computer Interface Design: Success Stories, Emerging Methods, and Real-World Context. San Francisco, Morgan Kaufmann, 1995.

Smith, Gillian Crampton , and Philip Tabor. “The Role of Artist-Designer.” In Bringing Design to Software, edited by Terry Winograd, 38–57. New York: ACM Press, 1996.

Speck Design. “Has Higher Education Failed the Female Industrial Designer?-Product Development Company.”, March 22, 2022.

Thomassen, Aukje, and Oguzhan Ozcan. “Standardizing Interaction Design Education.” Computers & Education 54, no. 4 (May 2010): 849–55.

Wardrip-Fruin, Noah, and Nick Montfort. The New Media Reader. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2003.

 Williamson, Bess. ACCESSIBLE AMERICA : A History of Disability and Design. S.L.: New York University Press, 2020.

Feminism, Feminism & HCI, Feminism & Technology

Ahmed, Alex, and Lilly Irani. “Feminism as a Design Methodology.” Interactions 27 (2020): 42–45.

Baker, Sarah. “Post-Work Futures and Full Automation: Towards a Feminist Design Methodology.” Open Cultural Studies 2 (December 2018): 540–52.

Bardzell, Shaowen. “Feminisms through Design: A Practical Guide to Implement and Extend Feminism: Response.” Interactions 27 (2020): 40–41.

Bardzell, Shaowen. “Feminist HCI: Taking Stock and Outlining an Agenda for Design,” 1301–10. Atlanta, Georgia, USA: Association for Computing Machinery, 2010.

Bardzell, Shaowen, and Jeffrey Bardzell. “Towards a Feminist HCI Methodology: Social Science, Feminism, and HCI,” 675–84. Vancouver, BC, Canada: Association for Computing Machinery, 2011.

Buckley, Cheryl. “Made in Patriarchy II: Researching (or Re-Searching) Women and Design.” Design Issues 36, no. 1 (January 2020): 19–29.

Buckley, Cheryl. “Made in Patriarchy: Toward a Feminist Analysis of Women and Design.” Design Issues 3 (1986): 3–14.

Cacouault-Bitaud, Marlaine. “La Feminisation d’Une Profession Est-Elle Le Signe d’Une Baisse de Prestige ?” Travail, Genre et Sociétés N° 5, no. 1 (2001): 91.

Chivukula, Sai Shruthi. “Feminisms through Design: A Practical Guide to Implement and Extend Feminism: Position.” Interactions 27 (2020): 36–39.

Chivukula, Shruthi Sai, and Colin M Gray. “Bardzell’s ‘Feminist HCI’ Legacy: Analyzing Citational Patterns,” 1–8. Honolulu, HI, USA: Association for Computing Machinery, 2020.

Evans, Claire L. “An Oral History of the First Cyberfeminists.”, December 11, 2014.

Evans, Claire L. “Feminist Worldbuilding in the Australian Cyberswamp.” Rhizome, October 27, 2016.

Evans, Claire L. “‘We Are the Future Cunt’: CyberFeminism in the 90s.”, November 20, 2014.

Haraway, Donna Jeanne. Simians, Cyborgs, and Women : The Reinvention of Nature. New York: Routledge, 1991.

Harris, Anita, ed. Next Wave Cultures: Feminism, Subcultures, Activism. New York: Routledge, 2008.

hooks, bell. Feminism Is for Everybody: Passionate Politics. 2000. Reprint, New York: Routledge, 2000.

Keller, Jessalynn Marie. “VIRTUAL FEMINISMS.” Information, Communication & Society 15, no. 3 (April 2012): 429–47.

Kumar, Neha, Naveena Karusala, Azra Ismail, Marisol Wong-Villacres, and Aditya Vishwanath. “Engaging Feminist Solidarity for Comparative Research, Design, and Practice.” Proc. ACM Hum.-Comput. Interact. 3 (2019).

Monji, Jana J. “‘Eames: The Architect and the Painter’ or Why Feminism Matters.” Pasadena Art & Science Beat, November 23, 2011.

Narvilkar, Manasee, Josiah Mangiameli, Alvarado Garcia, Azra Ismail, Daniel Schiff, Danielle Schechter, Jordan Chen, et al. “Bringing Shades of Feminism to Human-Centered Computing,” 1–12. Glasgow, Scotland Uk: Association for Computing Machinery, 2019.

Weir, Gemma. “A Feminist Intervention Is Needed for Interaction Design.” Medium, September 29, 2020.

Wyer, Mary, Mary Barbercheck, Donna Cookmeyer, Öztürk, Hatice Örün, and Marta Wayne, eds. Women, Science, and Technology : A Reader in Feminist Science Studies. Routledge, 2014.

Cyberspace, Digital Media, New Media Theory

Baudrillard, Jean. The Transparency of Evil : Essays on Extreme Phenomena. London; New York: Verso, 2002.

Bollini, Letizia. “The Pleiades: A Historical Perspective on the Constellation of the Protagonists of the Technological Revolution and Digital Design.” Accessed July 2021.

Campbell-Kelly, Martin, William Aspray, Nathan Ensmenger, and Jeffrey R Yost. Computer : A History of the Information Machine. London: Routledge, 2019.

Chun, Wendy Hui Kyong. Control and Freedom : Power and Paranoia in the Age of Fiber Optics. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2006.

Evans, Claire L. Broad Band : The Untold Story of the Women Who Made the Internet. New York: Portfolio/Penguin, 2020.

Galloway, Alexander R. The Interface Effect. Cambridge, Uk ; Malden, Ma: Polity, 2012.

Herring, Susan C. , Inna Kouper, Lois Ann Scheidt, and Elijah L. Wright. “Into the Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and Culture of Weblogs: Women and Children Last: The Discursive Construction of Weblogs.”, March 25, 2005.

Johnson, Steven. Interface Culture : How New Technology Transforms the Way We Create and Communicate. San Francisco: Harper, 1997.

Laurel, Brenda. Utopian Entrepreneur. Cambridge; London: MIT Press, 2001.

Manovich, Lev. The Language of New Media. Cambridge, Mass. MIT Press, 2001.

Negroponte, Nicholas. Being Digital. New York: Vintage Books, 1995.

Page, Ruth E. “Blogs.” in The Johns Hopkins Guide to Digital Media, edited by Marie-Laure Ryan, Lori Emerson, and Benjamin J. Robertson, 42–44. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014.

Ryan, Marie-Laure, Lori Emerson, and Benjamin J Robertson. The Johns Hopkins Guide to Digital Media. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014.

Vial, Stéphane. Being and the Screen. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2019.

Demographic Surveys & Statistics

ABC News. “Computer Ownership up in U.S.” ABC News, October 17, 2000.

Adeva - An Exclusive Developers Network. “State of Women in Tech,” 2016.

AIGA, Google, Eye on Design, and Accurat. “Understanding the State of Design and the People Who Make It,” 2019.

Coroflot. “Industrial Designer Salaries in United States - Design Salary Guide at Coroflot.” Coroflot. Accessed September 29, 2022. “Design Census 2019,” 2019. “IBISWorld - Industry Market Research, Reports, and Statistics,” August 26, 2022.

Jacobson, Murrey. “Google Finally Discloses Its Diversity Record, and It’s Not Good.” PBS NewsHour, May 28, 2014.

Jr et al., “The State of African-Americans in Computer Science – the Need to Increase Representation,” CRN, September 2015,


Measuring U. “2022 UXPA Salary Survey.” User Experience Professionals Association, March 2022.

Miller, Meg. “Survey: Design Is 73% White.” Fast Company, January 31, 2017.

National Center for Education Statistics. “Digest of Education Statistics, 2021.” September 2021.

National Center for Education Statistics. “Digest of Education Statistics, 2021,” April 2022.

(These are just two of the many statistics digests I used to help support the suppositions about the loss of women in computing and growth in design as well as the lack of diversity across engineering, computing and other technologies, especially in the 1980s.)

Richter, Felix . “Charted: There Are More Mobile Phones than People in the World.” World Economic Forum, April 11, 2023.

Voss, John. “A Read-out from the First-Ever Survey of LGBTQ+ People in Design.” Queer Design Club, July 2020. “UX Designer Demographics in the United States - CareerExplorer.” Accessed September 23, 2022. “User Experience Designer Demographics,” January 29, 2021.

Women of IXD logo using a large capital W over of ixd text

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